**Disjoint**events are events that don’t have any outcomes in common.

**Overlapping**events are events that have outcomes in common. Then, determine whether the events are

**disjoint**or

**overlapping**. You can do this by drawing a Venn diagram that shows if any events are common to the two sets.

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Then, what is the difference between disjoint and overlapping?

**In a disjoint** constraint you would have to put the musician in either one or the other sub classes. **In an overlapping** constraint the musician can be put in both. The **disjoint** rule states an entity instance of a supertype can only be a member of one subtype.

Beside above, what is an overlapping subtype? **Overlapping subtypes** are **subtypes** that contain non-unique subsets of the supertype entity set; that is, each entity instance of the supertype may appear in more than one **subtype**. For example, in a university environment, a person may be an employee or a student or both.

Beside this, what is an overlapping event?

Two or more **events** are said to be mutually exclusive **events** (disjoint **events**) if they cannot occur at the same time. **Events** A and B are mutually exclusive because they can’t occur at the same time. **Overlapping events**. Two or more **events** are said to be **overlapping events** if one or more **event** occurs at the same time.

What is disjoint constraint in DBMS?

**Disjoint constraints Disjoint** Describes the relationship between members of the subclasses and **constraint** indicates whether it is possible for a member of a superclass to be a member of one, or more than one, subclass. The **disjoint constraint** only applies when a superclass has more than one subclass.

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What is total specialization?

**total specialization**rule demands that every entity in the superclass belong to some subclass. Just as with a regular ERD,

**total specialization**is symbolized with a double line connection between entities. The partial

**specialization**rule allows an entity to not belong to any of the subclasses.

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What is a disjoint subtype give an example?

**Disjoint subtypes**: Contain a unique subset of the supertype entity set. Each entity instance of the supertype may only exist as

**one**of the

**subtypes**. Based on business rules like: Airline employees may only be a Pilot, Mechanic, or a FlightAttendant.

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What is Disjointness constraint?

**constraint**about generalization hierarchies. A

**disjointness constraint**means that the subtypes do not share any common entities. In other words, the intersection of the sets of entities in the subtypes is empty.

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What is disjoint subtype?

**Disjoint subtypes**, also known as nonoverlapping

**subtypes**, are

**subtypes**that contain a unique subset of the supertype entity set; in other words, each entity instance of the supertype can appear in only one of the

**subtypes**.

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What is completeness constraints in DBMS?

**completeness constraint**. A

**constraint**that specifies whether each entity supertype occurrence must also be a member of at least one subtype. The

**completeness constraint**can be partial or total. Partial

**completeness**means that some supertype occurrences might not be members of any subtype.

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What are the constraints on specialization and generalization?

**constraints**that may apply to a

**specialization**/

**generalization**: membership

**constraints**, disjoint

**constraints**and completeness

**constraints**. User defined: Sometimes the designer can define the superclass-subclass relationship.

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How do you do overlapping events?

**Overlapping events**are

**events**that have outcomes in common. Then, determine whether the

**events**are disjoint or

**overlapping**. You

**can do**this by drawing a Venn diagram that shows if any

**events**are common to the two sets. The answer is that these

**events**are

**overlapping**as there are numbers common to both

**events**.

###
How do you do overlapping probability?

**probability**of

**overlapping**events is: P(A or B) = P(A) + P(B) – P(A and B). As you

**can**see, you must subtract out the

**probability**of the

**overlapping**event to

**get**the right answer.

###
What is P A or B?

**B**is another event, then

**P(A or B**) is the probability of either A occurring, orB occurring, or both occurring.

###
What is an example of mutually exclusive events?

**Mutually Exclusive**: can’t happen at the same time.

**Examples**: Turning left and turning right are

**Mutually Exclusive**(you can’t do both at the same time) Tossing a coin: Heads and Tails are

**Mutually Exclusive**.

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HOW DO YOU FIND A or B?

**B**means that we want to

**know the**probability of two events happening at the same time. There’s a couple of different formulas, depending on if you have dependent events or independent events. Formula for the probability of A and

**B**(independent events): p(A and

**B**) = p(A) * p(

**B**).

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What is the probability that A or B or both occur?

**probability**that Events A and

**B both occur**is the

**probability**of the intersection of A and

**B**. The

**probability**of the intersection of Events A and

**B**is denoted by P(A ∩

**B**). If Events A and

**B**are mutually exclusive, P(A ∩

**B**) = 0.

###
Can disjoint events be independent?

**disjoint events can**never be

**independent**, except in the case that one of the

**events**is null.

**Events**are considered

**disjoint**if they never occur at the same time. For example, being a freshman and being a sophomore would be considered

**disjoint events**.

**Independent events**are unrelated

**events**.

###
How do you know if events are independent?

**Events**A and B are

**independent**if the equation P(A∩B) = P(A) · P(B) holds true. You can use the equation to check if

**events**are

**independent**; multiply the probabilities of the two

**events**together to see if they equal the probability of them both happening together.

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What is a specialization hierarchy?

**Specialization hierarchy**: The arrangement of higher-level supertypes entity and lower-level subtypes entity is called as

**specialization hierarchy**. The

**specialization hierarchy**is a “is-a” relationship model. It contains many levels of subtype or supertype relationships.

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How does one implement overlapping subtypes in a ER diagram?

**Overlapping subtypes are subtypes**that contain nonunique subsets of the supertype entity set; that is, each entity instance of the supertype may ppear in more than

**one subtype**. relationships in the

**ERD**.

**An**entity cluster is formed by combining multiple interrelated entities into

**a single**, abstract entity object.

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What is supertype and subtype in database?

**supertype**is a generic entity type that has a relationship with one or more

**subtypes**. A

**subtype**is a sub-grouping of the entities in an entity type that is meaningful to the organization and that shares common attributes or relationships distinct from other subgroups.